Introduction to Biology





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Course Contents

Part I Principles of Cellular Life Effects of waters polarity: importance of cohesion of water molecules for life; moderation of Earths temperature; Suitability of water as a solvent for life. Carbon and the molecular diversity of life. Polymer principles: most macromolecules of life are polymers; variety from a small set of monomers. Carbohydrates structure and function Proteins structure and function Lipids structure and function Nucleic acids structure and function Introduction to metabolism: pathways; energy transformation in organisms follow the laws of thermodynamics; life at the expense of free energy; enzymes as biocatalysts; regulation of metabolism B. Cell: Structural and functional unit of life. Structure: how we study cells; birds eye view of cell structure; sub cellular structures; organelles; cytoskeleton; cell surface and junctions Membrane structure and function; traffic across membranes Cellular respiration; photo-synthesis; cell communication; cell cycle

Part II Principles of Inheritance: Information processing in living systems Introduction to heredity: inheritance of chromosomes; comparison of asexual and sexual reproduction; meiosis and sexual life cycles; origins of genetic variation Mendel's discoveries; extending Mendel Ian genetics; Mendel Ian inheritance in human Chromosomal basis of inheritance: Relating Mendel's principles to chromosomes; Sex chromosomes and sex linked inheritance; errors and exceptions in chromosomal inheritance DNA as the genetic material; DNA replication and repair Gene to protein: connection between genes and proteins; synthesis and processing of RNA; synthesis of protein Organization and control of prokaryotic genomes Organization and control of eukaryotic genomes: chromatin structure; control of gene expression DNA technology and genomics: DNA cloning; DNA analysis and genomics; practical applications of DNA technology Genetic basis of development: single cell to multi cellular organism.




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