Chemical Synthetic Strategy of Advanced Materials




Courses with significant overlap with this course:

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Prerequisites: CHM 442/CHM 342 

Course Contents

 Introduction: (4)
Variety of inorganic (traditional to advanced) materials, Importance of Structural/refractory, Electronic and Bio-materials, Oxide superconductors and novel materials. Description of crystals, Bonding, Inorganuc structures, Silicates and Alluminosilicates, Polytypism, Nanocrystalline/amorphous solids.

Characterization techniques: (Working Knowledge) (4)
X-ray diffraction, Electron and Neutron Diffraction, AFM / SEM / TEM, Thermal(TG / DTG / DTA / DSC) and BET technique, XAS, EPR, IR, UV- Visible.

Reactivity of Solids: (4)
Decomposition and reactivity, Solid state reactions, Sintering process, Reaction kinetics, organic solid reactions, Nanomaterials and Heterogeneous catalysts.

Conventional techniques/ceramic procedures: (3)
Powder mixing, Fusion, Precipitation from solution, modern need for improved synthetic routes, Crystal growth and thin film techniques.

Sol-gel synthesis: (6)
Colloids, Cation hydrolysis and sol formation, Gel precipitation, Sol-Gel process for colloids, synthesis and Physical properties of Metal alkoxides, Development of Sol-Gel process from alkoxides, derived coatings, fibers and monodispersed submicron / nanostructured oxide powders, Ormosils, Sialons.

Non-aqueous liquid phase reactions: (4)
Reactions of chlorosilanes with ammonia, amines in liquid phase, Synthesis of non-oxide materials: Silicon Nitride, Metal-Borides, Carbides, Nitrides, Fluorides: Metal-Silicides, Phosphides, Sulfides and related materials.

Polymer pyrolysis: (2)
Synthesis of Polysilanes, Polycarbosilane, Silicon Carbide fibers, polysilastyrene, Nitride / Oxynitride-Fibers, Composites, Monoliths and coatings.

Hydrothermal synthesis: (2)
Forced hydrolysis at elevated temperatures and pressures, Hydrothermal reactions using salt solutions, Metal reactants and reactions involving phase transformation.

Precursor Technique: (3)
Citrate-gel process, Metallo-organic precursors, Metal alkoxides.

Gas phase reactions: (2)
Gas-Phase nucleation, Flame hydrolyzed powders, Direct - nitridation and carbothermic reduction, Non-plasma gas phase reactions, Plasma reactions, Electron Beam evaporation.

Freeze-drying and Rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (Nebulized spray pyrolysis). (2)

Special reactions: (8)
Topochemical reactions, Intercalation reactions, Ion-exchange method, Molten Salt method, Electrochemical methods, Chemical vapour deposition, Reactions at high pressures, Intergrown structures.

Laser - abelation, Arc and Skull methods. (2) 



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  • Chemical synthesis of Advanced Ceramic Materials; D. Segal, Cambridge Univ. Press, Meew York 1989.

  • Chemical Processing of Advanced Materials: L. L. Hench and J. K. West (eds), John Wiley New York 1992.

  • P. Hagnmuller (ed): Preparative Methods in Solid State Chemistry, Acdemic Press, New York, 1972.

  • Sol-Gel Science, C. J. Brinker & G. W. Scherer, Academic Press, 1980.

  • Non-Oxide Technical & Engg. Ceramics, Ed. Stuart Hampshire, Elsevier Applied Science Pub. Ltd. 1986.

  • Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, glasses and Composited, Ed. L. L. Hench, D.R. Ulrich, John Wiley, New York 1984.




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