Techniques in Non-destructive Evaluation






Concise Syllabus

To introduce the methods to detect inhomogeneities (cracks, delaminations, corrosion) in macrostructures using non-invasive methods such as thermography, ultrasonics, and computer vision. Experiments will be demonstrated for all three techniques.

Lecture-wise Break Up

I. Introduction

  • Need for and overview of NDE; Applications of NDE for different types of defects in metals, composites, and ceramics; Measurements of displacement, stress, and strain; Sensor characteristics, signal conditioning, data reduction, and choice of sensors; General solutions of hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs [6]

II. Thermal NDE

  • Thermography: From black body radiation to principles of thermal imaging; Fourier heat diffusion and boundary conditions; Contact and non-contact thermal techniques; Pulsed, pulsed-phase and vibrothermography—theory, experiments, and algorithms for processing data; Fabrication of sensors [10]

III. Ultrasonics

  • Christoffel equation and types of boundary conditions; Sensors: Generation and reception. Near-field and far-field measurements; Time-of-fight method: Basics, imaging, and applications; Phased array: Theory and applications; Electromagnetic acoustic transducers: governing equations, construction of transducers, and applications; Guided waves: dispersion relations and applications; Synthetic aperture focused technique; Metamaterials in ultrasound imaging [12]

IV. Computer vision: Optical methods

  • Basics of instrumentation and optics; Digital image and digital volume correlation; Discrete Fourier transforms and phase based amplification; Measurement of mechanical properties from digital images [7]

V. Special topics

  • Structural Health monitoring: Computer vision, fibre optics, and acoustic emission; AI in NDE; Shearography; Selection of parameters of instrumentation; Hybrid techniques: eddy-current thermography, laser-ultrasonics [7]


  • Courses on mechanics of solids (ME321A or ME621A or equivalent) and basics of heat transfer


  1. Xavier PV Maldague, "Nondestructive evaluation of materials by infrared thermography", Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

  2. Horatio S. Carslaw and John A. Jaeger, "Conduction of heat in solids", Oxford Science Publications, 1947.

  3. Tribikram Kundu, "Ultrasonic and electromagnetic NDE for structure and material characterization: Engineering and biomedical applications", CRC Press, 2016.

  4. Joseph L. Rose, "Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Solid Media", Cambridge University Press, 2014.

  5. Lester Schmerr, "Fundamentals of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation", Springer, 2016.

Prepared by

C. Chandraprakash