Internal Combustion Engines






Course Content:

Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, Basic Introduction to SI & CI engine, Air Standard Cycles and their Analysis, Fuel-Air Cycles and their analysis, Conventional fuels & Alternative fuels, Fossil fuels: Refining & Properties, Analysis of fossil fuels, Fundamentals of SI & CI engine, Engine Ignition System, Engine cooling system, Engine Friction and Lubrication, Supercharging and Turbocharging, Carburetor and Fuel Injection Systems, Fuel Injection in SI engine, Combustion in CI Engines, Knocking in SI and CI engine, Combustion Chamber Design of SI and CI engines, Wankel Engine, Engine Performance parameters, Measurement and Testing, Pollution from SI and CI engines, Emission Measurement Instruments, gasoline Direct Injection Engine (if time permits), Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) Engine.

Lecturewise Breakup (Based on 40 lecture)

I. Introduction:

  • Heat Engine and Their Classification, IC engine components, Engine Terminology, Basic working Principle, Basic Introduction to SI and CI engine, Engine Performance Parameters. [2]

II. Thermodynamic Cycles:

  • Ideal air-standard cycles, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, Limited Pressure Cycle, Deviation of Actual Cycle from Air Standard Cycle, Considerations in Fuel-Air cycles, Effect of variables on engine performance, Actual Engine Cycles, Losses in Actual engine cycle. [3]

III. Conventional fuels & Alternative fuels:

  • Energy Scenario, Transport Fuel, Petroleum Based Liquid Fuel and Their Characteristics, Alternative Fuel Factors, Methanol, CNG, LPG, LNG, DME, Hydrogen, Biofuels, Viable Option for India. [3]

IV. Fossil fuels –Refining, Properties and Analysis:

  • Fossil Fuel Formation, various Sources, Drilling Arrangements, Crude Oil Composition, Petroleum Refining, Refined Petroleum Products, Fuels Properties such as Calorific Value, Flash Point, Pour Point, Octane and Cetane Number, Knocking Characteristics, Volatility, Important Qualities of SI and CI engine Fuels, Rating of SI and CI engine Fuels. [4]

V. Thermo-Chemistry of Fuel-air Mixture:

  • Stoichiometric Combustion of Fuels, Heat of Reaction, Adiabatic Flame Temperature. [2]

VI. Combustion in SI and CI Engines:

  • Examples of CI and SI engine, Engine Performance, Combustion in SI engines, Ignition Process and Limit, Spark Plug, Spark and Flame Propagation, Stages of Combustion in SI engines, Flame Front Propagation, Effects of Engine variables on Ignition Lag, Factors Influencing the Flame Speed, Combustion in CI engine, Stages of CI engine combustion. Knocking in SI and CI engine, Effect of Engine Variables on Knock, Comparison of knocking in SI & CI engine, factors affecting Detonations. [4]

VII. Engine Ignition System:

  • Energy Requirement for Ignition, Different Ignition System and Working, Component of battery Ignition System, Requirement of Spark Plugs, Design of Spark Plug, Magneto Ignition System, Transistorized Coil Ignition, Capacitive Discharge Ignition, Firing Order, Ignition Timing. [2]

VIII. Engine cooling system, Engine Friction and Lubrication:

  • Variation of Gas Temperature, Piston and Cylinder Temperature Variation, Parametric Affecting Engine Heat Transfer, Power Requirement for cooling, Types of Cooling System, Diagnosis of Cooling Systems Problems, Engine Friction and Types, Factors affecting Mechanical Friction, Lubrication and its mechanism, Different Lubrication System (Mist, Wet Sump, Dry Sump). Properties of Lubricants, Additive of Lubricants. [3]

IX. Supercharging and Turbocharging:

  • Boosting the Engine, Supercharging, Different types of supercharger, Characteristics of a centrifugal compressor, Effect of supercharging on performance of the engine, Working of Turbocharger, Turbolag, Overloading of Engine by Turbocharger, Different types of Turbocharger, Turbocharger and Supercharger Configurations, Advantages of Supercharger and turbocharger. [3]

X. Fuel Injection System:

  • Carburetor, Working of Carburetor, Components of a carburetor, Types of Carburetors, Electronic Fuel in Injection (EFI) System, Components of an EFI system, Fuel Injectors, Types of Injection, Electronic control of engines, Requirement of Diesel Injection System, Types of Injection system for CI engine, Fuel Pump, Nozzles. [4]

XI. Combustion Chamber Design:

  • Combustion chambers in SI engines, Important Factors Considered in Combustion Chamber Design, Combustion Chambers in CI engines, Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Chamber, Different Types of Swirl, Direct Injection Volumetric Combustion Chamber Illustrating Phases of Combustion. [3]

XII. Wankel Engine:

  • Introduction, Development of Wankel Engine, Components of a Wankel Engine, Working of Wankel Engine, Features of Rotary Wankel Engine, Lubrication in Wankel Rotary Engine, Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Wankel Engine, Reciprocating Engine Vs. Rotary Wankel engine, Advantages and Disadvantages of Wankel engine, Application of Wankel Engine. [2]

XIII. Engine Performance Parameters:

  • Fuel Power, Indicated Power, Brake Power, Efficiency, Performance of SI Engines, Engine performance characteristics for SI engine, Performance of CI Engines, Variables affecting performance characteristics, Methods of improving engine performance, Performance Maps. [2]

XIV. Measurement and Testing:

  • Measurement of Speed, Fuel Consumption Measurement, Volumetric type flowmeters, Measurement of Air consumption, Measurement of Brake Power, Types of Dynamometer, Measurement of Frictional Power, Measurement of Indicated Power. [1]

XV. Pollution From Engines:

  • Exhaust Emissions, Effect of Various Parameter on Exhaust Emissions, Exhaust Emissions from SI Engines, Gasoline Engine Emission Control, Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions, Comparison of Diesel and Gasoline Emissions. [1]

XVI. Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis:

  • Emission measurement, Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy, Working of NDIR System, Flame Ionization Detector, Schematic and Working of FID system, Chemiluminescence Analyzer, Smoke opacimeters. [1]


  1. IC Engine Fundamentals: John B. Heywood, Mc Graw Hill

  2. Fundamentals of IC Engines: P. W. Gill and James Smith, Oxford IBH

  3. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines: Richard Stone, SAE Inc., 1999

  4. IC Engines (Combustion and Emissions): B. P. Pundir, Narosa Publications

  5. IC Engine Fundamentals: V. Ganesan, Tata Mc Graw Hill

  6. Thermodynamics: Cengel and Boles, Tata McGraw Hill