Energy Systems-II




3L-0T-1P-0A (10 Credits)



ESO201, ME231.

Course Content:

Introduction: General Theory and Classification of Turbomachines; Similarity and Dimensional Analysis; Two-dimensional Cascade Theory; Axial and Radial Flow Machines: Turbines, Compressors and Fans; Gas Turbine Power Plant Cycles; Thermal Power plant: Flow through Nozzle and Steam Turbines; Hydraulic Machines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan Turbines; Pump and Cavitation.

Lecturewise Breakup:

I. Introduction: General Theory and Classification: (3 Lectures)

  • Definition of turbomachines, Classification: mixed, axial and radial flow impellers and their applications, Equation of motion and energy in rotating frame of reference, Effect of Coriolis forces, Euler equation for torque, Concept of velocity triangles.

II. Similarity and Dimensional Analysis: (2 Lectures)

  • Geometric and kinematic similarity, Similarity rules, Non-dimensional characteristics, Specific Speed and Specific Diameter, Similarity analysis for compressible flow.

III. Two-Dimensional Cascade Theory: (4 Lectures)

  • Introduction to turbine and compressor cascades, Two-dimensional analysis of inviscid and incompressible flows through cascade,   Kutta-Joukowski theorem, Circulation and lift, Cascade tunnel, Blade efficiency and losses, Cascade nomenclature.

IV. Axial flow machines: Compressors, Turbines and Fans: (9 Lectures)

  • Two-dimensional pitch line analysis and design, Work done factor, Degree of Reaction, Losses, Compressor/Turbine Blade efficiency,   Off-design performance, Multi-stage machines, Compressible flow analysis, Preheat and reheat, Overall-pressure ratio, Turbine   blade cooling.

V. Centrifugal Machines: (4 Lectures)

  • Pressure rise in Centrifugal compressors, work done factor, relative eddy and slip factor, effect of compressibility, diffuser system, inward flow radial turbine, basic design of the rotor, losses and efficiency.

VI. Power Plant Cycles: (2 Lectures)

  • Gas turbine cycles, Reheat and Regenerative cycles, Inter-cooling, Gas turbine cycles for propulsion, Turboprop and turbojet engines.

VII. Thermal Power plant: Flow through Nozzle and Steam Turbine: (9 Lectures)

  • Introduction, Boiler, thermodynamic relations of adiabatic flow through convergent and divergent nozzle, shock, over- and under-   expansion, effect of friction, nozzle efficiency, super-saturated expansion of steam in a nozzle, degree of super-saturation and under-   cooling, Wilson line, steam turbine, simple impulse turbine, pressure and velocity compounding, blade efficiency, stage efficiency,   optimum blade speed, reaction turbine, degree of reaction, performance analysis, governing of turbines.

VIII. Hydraulic Machines: (5 Lectures)

  • Pelton turbine, Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine, cavitation, draft tube, Specific speed and efficiency.

IX. Pump and Cavitation: (2 Lectures)

  • Centrifugal pump, types of impeller, performance analysis of a centrifugal pump, diffuser, Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and cavitation.

Laboratory sessions:

I. Study and performance characteristics of a two-stage axial flow fan.

II. Evaluation of performance characteristics for a multi-stage compressor.

III. Performance characteristics of centrifugal pumps operating in series & parallel mode.

IV. Performance characteristics of an Impulse Turbine for different loads.

V. Performance analysis of a miniaturised Power Plant.

VI. Performance, emission characterization and heat balance of an IC Engine.

VII. COP and Performance analysis of vapour compression system, operating in refrigeration and heat pump mode.


  1. S. L. Dixon and C. A. Hall, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery, Elsevier, Sixth Edition, 2010.

  2. H. Cohen, G. F. C. Rogers and H. I. H. Saravanamuttoo, Gas Turbine Theory, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd, Fourth Edition, 1996.

  3. S.M.Yahya, Turbines, Compressor and Fan, Tata McGraw-Hill, Second Edition, 2003.

  4. B.Lakshminarayana, Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1996.