Photonics Science and Engineering

Center for Lasers and Photonics, IIT Kanpur

Slide background
Introduction to quantum mechanics and its tools: Motivation for quantum mechanics: early experiments; general principles of quantum mechanics: operator algebra, eigenstates, superposition, observables and expectation values, uncertainty relations, commutators, angular momentum, Dirac notation; potential wells and barriers, harmonic oscillator, Hydrogenic atom; time independent and dependent perturbation theory. .Device applications of quantum and wave phenomena: Density of states; practical examples of lowdimensional systems such as quantum wells, wires and dots: design, fabrication and characterization techniques; engineered electronic and optical properties of these lowdimensional materials; application in electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices; current research efforts towards using quantum mechanical effects for developing efficient devices.
  1. Introduction.
  2. Light propagation in optical fibers. Single and multimode fibers, light guiding by fibers, material and waveguide dispersion, Polarization mode dispersion, Nonlinear effects: self and cross phase modulation, Raman and Brillouin scattering, four wave mixing etc.
  3. Optical transmitters and modulation. External modulators: phase and intensity, bias control, Pulse shaping, pulse carving, Modulation formats; Intensity modulation, RZ and NRZ amplitude modulation, Mary modulation using Mach Zehnder modulator, MSK, IQ modulation and optical OFDM.
  4. Detection of optical signals. Direct detection: receiver structure, data recovery, signal to noise ratio, performance calculations for binary digital optical systems. Coherent detection: heterodyne, homodyne, DSP assisted coherent optical receiver, performance analysis.
  5. Optical amplifiers. Principles of SOA and EDFA, single and double pump configurations, ASE noise in SOA and EDFA, OSNR calculations.
  6. Optical link design. Power budget under linear and nonlinear effects, power penalty, dispersion tolerance in DWDM systems.
Introduction., Review of Semiconductors, Epitaxial Growth of Semiconductors, Semiconductor Optical Waveguides, LED, Diode Lasers, Fabrication and Packaging, Single mode Laser diodes plus Reliability, PhotoDetectors, External Modulators, Photonic Integrations.
Motivations and overview of of tomography, limited data settings, approximate tomography, multimodal tomography. Typical Models: Maxwells equations, Helmholtz equation, eikonal equation, radiative transfer equation and its diffusion approximation. Brief review of numerical solutions to the above models: finite element schemes and the method of moments (boundary element method) Linear tomography: Straight path tomography, Born and Rytov approximations in diffraction tomography, algebraic reconstruction techniques. Regularized linear and nonlinear least squares solutions. Frechet derivative calculations, method of adjoints. Approximate tomography: Shape based tomography and topological derivatives Introduction to stochastic reconstruction schemes, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, posterior sampling. Applications: Diffuse optical tomography, electrical impedance tomography, refraction tomography, electromagnetic wave tomography, elastography, multimodal tomography
  1. Introductory concepts: Linear algebra and probability fundamentals
  2. Motivating the basic Kalman filter: Least squares, LMS and RLS algorithms
  3. The linear Kalman filter, constant gain Kalman filters
  4. Filter tuning, expectation maximization.
  5. Bayesian framework, Kalman smoothers, nonlinear and other variants of the Kalman filter (eg.,extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, particle filter)
  6. Brief introduction to H-Infinity filters
  7. Applications in signal processing, inverse problems and data assimilation.
Semiclassical theory of lasers, single and multimode operation, gas laser theory, ring and Zeeman lasers, coherence in lasers. nonlinear optical phenomena, Feynman diagrams in multiphoton problems.
Thermodynamics of computing, Shannon Theory, elementary information theory (2)Basics of computers, Church Turing hypothesis, basics of computing complexity (4)Basic of quantum mechanics, Feynman Block Pseudo polarization Vector Model, Time Dependent Schrodinger equation, basics of approximate quantum approaches (8)Two level Systems, Coherence, Superposition Principle, Density Matrix, Entanglement, Relaxation Processes.(6)Quantum gates and circuits, Theory of Quantum Information and Computation, Deutsch Jozsa algorithm, Shor's algorithm for factoring, Grover's search algorithm and its applications.(8)Quantum Complexity, Quantum Turing Machine. (6) Physical implementations of Quantum Computation, Light polarization, NMR, Cavity QED, IonTraps, Laser matter interaction, Coherent Control.
Introduction to Biophotonics, Basics of optics and light matter interaction: Reflection, refraction scattering, diffraction, absorption, emission, scattering, Principles of Lasers, Non-linear Optics associated with Biophotonics, Photobiology: Interaction of light with tissue, Bioimaging: Different Optical Imaging techniques: Comparison with other imaging techniques, Microscopy, Spectral and Time resolved Imaging, Applications of bioimaging, Optical Biosensors: fiber optic, evanescent wave, surface plasmon resonance, Bio-nano-photonics
Fundamentals of Lasers, laser induced fluorescence and multiphoton ionization processes of molecules, probing IVR and dynamics of chemical reactions in liquid and molecular beam, spectroscopy of single molecule, probing of proton dynamics, optical trapping and manipulations of biological macromolecules and organelles, confocal microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, applications to diagnostics and biotechnology