The transmission grids, in modern power systems, are being operated under heavily stressed conditions due to rapid growth in demand and competitive energy market scenario. The operating conditions in a power system change continuously. The system topology also may change frequently. A real-time monitoring system is, therefore, needed to operate and control the power system, while ensuring its stability, security, and reliability. 

The conventional Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system based monitoring system cannot track real-time changes in the power system because of its slow refresh rate and asynchronous nature of the measurements. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) alleviate this problem by rendering synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements or synchrophasors at a very fast rate. This synchronized measurement technology based Wide Area Monitoring and Control System (WAMCS) is, therefore, being envisaged to become the backbone of the so-called ‘smart grid’ in near future at transmission and generation level.



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